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The Higgins Site, Clarke County, Virginia – A View of a PaleoAmerican Site in Virginia

Jack Hranicky, RPA and Larry Higgins 

This full-color report presents jasper artifacts that are quite similar to paleolithic artifacts in Europe. The site was tested which produced artifacts that easily date to the Pleistocene era in Virginia. These artifacts were manufactured by the blade and core technology. This site is classified as a hunter/gatherer occupation on the Shenandoah River. Its most important artifact is a transverse recloir which has two matches from other sites on the river.


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PaleoAmerican Archaeology in Virginia

By Wm Jack Hranicky

Number of Pages: 256
ISBN-10: 1627341102
ISBN-13: 9781627341103
Publisher: Universal-Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida
Year: 2017
Category: History & Biography, Social Science
Cost: $69.95 (Full Color)

This book is a full-color study of pre-Clovis stone artifacts from Virginia. With the 22K-year date of the Cinmar bipoint in Virginia, there is ample evidence of artifact classes that are older than Clovis in Virginia. Over 50 tool types are illustrated and discussed. Artifact single-site collections are documented. The book argues the differences between Holocene biface technology with the blade and core technology of the Pleistocene era. The requirements for identifying Pleistocene artifacts are presented, such as platforms, remaining cortex, and invasive retouch. They are presented in a tool model. Major stones, namely jasper, are discussed as a lithic determinism. The east coast distribution is presented for various tool types. Additionally, as a major focus, cross-Atlantic flake/blade identical tools from Europe are illustrated with Middle Atlantic artifacts. Artifact ergonomics, such as right-left handed tools, hypothetical tool center, are argued. Structural and functional axes are shown and described on how to identify them as tools. Overall, this book presents an initiating view of the archaeology needed to study Pleistocene era artifacts on the American East Coast.

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