These sites represent human occupation in Virginia from at least 20,000 YBP to the start of Clovis around 13,000 YBP. Archaeologists have assumed that this time period was a void in Virginia prehistory when, in fact, the state was occupied, and these people left flake-blade lithics everywhere. These implements simply do not represent the Holocene “arrowhead” thinking of archaeologists and these tools are ignored. This publication contains over 500 flake-blade implements…many more still to be recovered. This period is called the PaleoAmerican era of Virginia.

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The publication’s 12 sites represent human occupation in Virginia from at least 20,000 YBP to the start of Clovis around 13,000 YBP. Archaeologists have assumed that this time period was a void in Virginia prehistory when, in fact, the state was occupied, and these people left flake-blade lithics everywhere. These implements simply do not represent the Holocene “arrowhead” thinking of archaeologists and these tools are ignored. This publication contains over 500 flake-blade implements…many more still to be recovered. All its sites are ongoing investigations, but this publication reports a tentative assessment of them.

Major features:
Old World tool legacies
Blade vs. biface lithic technologies
Non-arrowhead cultural world
Production of artforms for social and/or Religious activities
Bitumen processing stations
Non-Holocene effigies
Various stone quarrying activities
Large stone rings
Solstice observatories
Clay processing.

These sites represent human occupation in Virginia from at least 20,000 YBP to the start of Clovis around 13,000 YBP. Archaeologists have assumed that this time period was a void in Virginia prehistory when, in fact, the state was occupied, and these people left flake-blade lithics everywhere. These implements simply do not represent the Holocene “arrowhead” thinking of archaeologists and these tools are ignored. This publication contains over 500 flake-blade implements…many more still to be recovered. This period is called the PaleoAmerican era of Virginia.

Archaeology in Pleistocene Virginia

With the lack of publications and all the various archaeologists’ opinions, presenting a true historical account of a specific time period, namely the late Pleistocene era, is somewhat controversial and has little acceptance in Virginia’s archaeological community. Regardless, this presentation is the result of numerous archaeological site investigations.

Baby Mammoth, Arkfeld Pleistocene Site,
Federick County, Virginia