This publication re-introduces the 1974 report on the Thunderbird Paleoindian site by William Gardner of Catholic University in Washington, DC. And, its main focus is jasper usage in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. While the Thunderbird site is presented as the most significant site in the East, other jasper sites are discussed and illustrated. However, the site’s stratigraphy is not accurate as Palmer points were found below Clovis by Gardner’s crew. However, Gardner started the Paleo-tradition in Virginia and the Middle Atlantic area. This publication furthers his work by investigating the use of jasper through the paleo era.

Thunderbird Paleoindian Site in Virginia

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Furthermore, the publication presents sites and a generalized jasper artifact study from the Shenandoah Valley. Both blade and biface technology are discussed in relationship to a new prehistoric chronology for Virginia.

Lanier Rodgers (1970s) Excavating at the Thunderbird Site in Virginia. Bill Gardner is wearing glasses.

Thunderbird Excavated Clovis Points.